Climate Change

Juan G. R., Juan G. R., Juan P. J. Climate change and its main effects in 2017.

Water and Irrigation Vol .: 9, No. 1: 1-3, January 2018, Spain.

The effects of climate change have manifested intensely during 2017, where the different factors that influence have had a very broad participation and threaten to continue increasing their activities in 2018. Total economic damages from natural disasters in 2017 are estimated at more than 500,000 million of dollars. Floods, droughts, cold waves, heat waves, melting poles, global warming, fires, rising sea temperatures with increased intensity of cyclones, typhoons and tornadoes, increased volcanic and seismic activity are common manifestations that accompany climate change, in which the impact of human activity greatly influences. The temperature of oceans and seas has increased remarkably in the last 30 years, which has caused cyclones, typhoons, tornadoes and tropical storms to become increasingly violent and destructive.

Cold waves: -A cold wave in early January 2017 makes a record in Russia and Germany. Low temperatures reached minus 30 ° C in Moscow, causing human and economic losses. More than 80 people died from hypothermia in 10 countries in Europe.
– At the end of December 2017 a wave of extreme cold, with temperatures of minus 35 º C, hits Canada and the North of the USA, causing deaths and great economic losses, later it gradually moves within the continent.

Global warming: -Global warming has manifested itself with the gradual melting of the Poles in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as in the ice sheets of: Greenland, Alaska, the Himalayas and in regions with glaciers in South America .
-In 2017 there have been heat waves that have caused the death of many people in some countries, with temperatures above 43 º C, in Iran it has been observed extreme values ​​of 57 º C.

 

Volcanic and seismic activity: -Eruption of the Colima volcano in Mexico in January.
– Etna volcano eruption in February on the Island of Sicily, Italy. It is the highest active volcano in Europe with 3220 meters.

-Eruption of Mount Agung volcano on the Indonesian island of Bali in November.
-Eruption of the Reventador volcano in Ecuador in December, located 90 km from Quito.
– Currently in the world there are 60 active volcanoes.

– Earthquake in Chiapas, Mexico in September, of magnitude 8.0 on the Richter scale.
– Earthquake in Japan, in September, of magnitude 6.1 on the Richter scale.
– Earthquake on the border of Iran and Iraq in November, of magnitude 7.3 degrees.

Hurricanes and Typhoons: -The Atlantic season runs from June 1 to November 30 and the Pacific season is from May 15 to November 30.

-The development of hurricanes in the Atlantic in 2017 has been very active with 46 events: Tropical Depressions, Tropical Storms and Hurricanes, of which 10 are hurricanes. The strongest storm is represented by hurricane Maria, 280 km / h
-The activity of the typhoons in the Pacific in 2017 has been moderate with 24 events: Tropical depression, tropical storms and typhoons, of which 7 are typhoons. The strongest storm is represented by Typhoon Lan with wind gusts of 250 km / h and a PB of 915 hPa..

.-The Hurricane Irma has brought destruction and death to the Caribbean, Cuba and Florida. The Caribbean islands report 25 deaths, Cuba 10 and Florida 8 for a total of 43 dead. The total economic losses in the affected countries are estimated at more than 40 billion dollars.

Forest fires: -Forest fires have become one of the environmental problems, aggravated by the climatic effect, the scarcity of rain, high temperatures and the hand of man.
– The fires in Portugal in 2017 affected more than 250,000 hectares and represent around 50% of the burned areas in Europe.

– Fires in forest and non-forest areas in Spain in 2017, amount more than 170,000 ha.
-The fires in California, USA affected around 550, 000 ha, with estimated economic losses in 1300 million dollars.

 

Drought: -The famine in 2017 increases mainly in Africa in the semiarid strip of the Sahel and in the Horn of Africa as a consequence of the shortage of rains and the internal conflicts that plague those countries.

-The Arabian Peninsula is also very affected by the lack of rainfall, the depletion of water reserves and the conflicts of war.

-The volume of water stored in Spain at the end of the autumn of 2017 represented only 37% of the capacity of the reservoirs. The rivers of the great basins are affected by the drought and in all, the reservoirs of water reservoirs are below the last 10 years. The lack of rain is prolonged and the drought is extended, economic losses are already evident in large areas of Spain, the drought is considered the most intense of the last 20 years. Currently due to rainfall in late fall and early winter they have increased water reserves to 42%.

Floods: – The floods in Australia caused by Cyclone Debbie in March caused great economic losses and thousands of victims.

-The season of floods in Colombia in May left more than390 dead and thousands of victims, several rivers overflowed, infrastructures were damaged and communication roads were cut, of the 32 departments that the country has 28 have been affected by the winter season which lasts until June.

– More than 30 people died in July, due to torrential rains in Central and South China, where floods affected crop areas and hundreds of thousands of people, the flow of more than 60 rivers in the South rose above risk level. However, in the North of the country there was drought and heat waves.

-More than 1,200 deaths and millions of displaced people have left the floods in India, Bangladesh and Nepal in August, destroying or damaging millions of homes and infrastructure, are considered the worst floods in the region in the last 40 years. In July of 2017, the floods caused by the monsoons left more than 90 dead and millions of victims in India and Nepal.

Droughts, floods, cold waves, heat waves, melting poles, global warming, fires, rising sea temperatures with increased intensity of cyclones, typhoons and tornadoes, increased volcanic and seismic activity are common manifestations that accompany climate change, in which the impact of human activity greatly influences. The temperature of oceans and seas has increased remarkably in the last 30 years due to the effect of global warming and the El Niño phenomenon, which has caused cyclones, typhoons, tornadoes and tropical storms to become increasingly violent and destructive. Total economic damages from natural disasters in 2017 are estimated at more than 500,000 million dollars

 

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