Water & Irrigation
Juan G. R. Water problem in Spain hydrological year 2015-2016.
Water and Irrigation Vol.: 7, No. 1: 26-27, October, 2016, Spain.
In the begin of the 2016-2017 hydrological year minimum reserves of water in reservoirs are low in Mediterranean basins: Segura, Júcar, the Andalusian Mediterranean and the Internal Catalonia with average values of: 24%, 26%, 36 % and 55% respectively in these 4 basins water reserves are below the average of the last 10 years. There are also two other major watersheds begin to feel the effects of deficit rainfall, the river Ebro and the Guadalquivir To cope with the insufficient contribution of rainfall is necessary to perform appropriate strategies such as planting, management irrigation water in different cultures and rational management of water in reservoirs and groundwater basins.
At the end of the hydrological year 2015-2016 the balance of water reserves in the basins of the Mediterranean are very low with minimum values of reservoir 274 hm3-24% and 869hm3-26% for the basins of the Segura and Júcar respectively, are followed by the Andalusian Mediterranean basin and the Internal Catalonia with minimum reserves in the reservoirs of 427 hm3-36% and 377hm3-55% .In these 4 basins the water reserves are below the average of the last 10 years, according to State of the Reservoirs www.embalses.net
The dammed water in all reservoirs in Spain is 29197 hm3 the 27/09/2016 representing 52% of the total. In large basins of the main Spanish rivers: Tajo, the Duero and the Guadiana the water reserves are above 52%, while in the basin of the river Ebro and the Guadalquivir the water reserves are lower than 49% , according to State of the Reservoirs www.embalses.net
Analysis of reservoirs shows that the watershed most affected are those of the Segura, Júcar, Mediterranean Andalusia and Catalonia Internal all located in the coastal area of the Mediterranean, which are characterized by integrating an area with large agricultural holdings, great contribution of tourists to its beaches and a permanent water deficit in their sockets to meet the water needs of crops, population and tourism development.
There are also two other major watersheds begin to feel the effects of deficit rainfall, the river Ebro located northeast of the country where water supplies are well below the average of the last 10 years and the Guadalquivir river located south where water reserves reach the limit of the average of the last 10 years. Both watersheds are located at opposite ends.
The rains of winter, spring and summer in 2016 have not been enough to raise adequate water levels of reservoirs and aquifers, so that water resources tend to diminish, as both surface water and groundwater are part the hydrological cycle, in which the contribution of rainfall is essential.
Entering the 2016-2017 season we found that the water reserves in reservoirs and aquifers are limited, many of them have problems of water shortage and overexploited and heavily dependent behavior of rains so you must realizes strategize type planting, the appropriate irrigation management in different crops and rational management of water in reservoirs and groundwater basins.
The average of all dammed water in Spain is already 52% and is located on the edge of the average of the last 10 years so it should be observed carefully this trend, since it is manifested in 6 watersheds country. The national average of rains 2014-15 hydrological year is 581 mm / m2 and is below the average year and hydrological year 2015-16 behavior of accumulated rainfall is also less than the average year.